Periodontal (Gum) Disease 

Disease progresses from inflammation of the gums (gingivitis) to destruction of gingival attachment, bone loss (periodontitis) and eventual tooth loss.


Crowns are placed to improve the long-term prognosis and fracture resistance of teeth weakened structurally by decay, trauma and root canal treatment.


A missing tooth can be replaced by a bridge which involves preparing the two teeth adjacent to the missing tooth for crowns.  A prosthetic tooth is attached to the two crowns forming a fixed bridge, which is cemented in permanently.

Endodontic Treatment (Root Canal)

Deep decay extending to the nerve will require removal of the infected nerve tissue, followed by filling in of the canal space to completely eliminate the bacteria involved.

Porcelain Veneers

Thin pieces of porcelain are bonded to teeth to improve the shape and colour of the teeth.  Minor crowding and spacing can be corrected this way.

Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)

This demonstrates how the cartilage disc in the TMJ can be displaced temporarily during open (resulting in clicking sounds) and permanently (when clicking stops and disc is trapped) due to grinding or clenching.  This may result in jaw pain, muscle pain and/or headaches.

Consequences of Missing Teeth

This demonstrates the long-term adverse consequences of not replacing a tooth after it is lost.


Implants are titanium fixtures that are placed in the jaw bone to replace the root of a missing tooth.  A crown is placed on the implant after healing is complete to restore esthetics and function.

Implant Bridge

Multiple missing teeth can be replaced by an implant bridge involving prosthetic teeth supported by implants.

Implant Overdenture

Implants can be used to retain and stabilize dentures.

Gingival Graft (Alloderm)

Root exposure resulting from gum recession can be corrected with a gingival graft using Alloderm.